Basics of Logic Practice-01
Foundation of Logic Practice
01. If some students of Earnest Prep are attending motivational seminar, which of the following statement MUST be true? (Indicate all that apply)
I. Most of the students of Earnest Prep are attending motivational seminar.
II. Some of the students who are attending motivational seminar are from Earnest Prep.
III. Some of the students who are attending motivational seminar are not from Earnest Prep.
02. If some students of Earnest Prep are not attending motivational seminar, which of the following statement CANNOT be true? (Indicate all that apply)
I. None of the students of Earnest Prep is attending motivational seminar.
II. All of the students who are attending motivational seminar are from Earnest Prep.
III. None of the students of Earnest Prep is not attending motivational seminar.
03. If City A is on west of City B, which is on East of City C, which of the following conclusion can be most appropriately drawn? (Indicate all that apply)
I. City C is on the middle of City A and City B.
II. City A is on the west of City C.
III. City C situated between City A and City B.
04. Many people believe that smoking is one of the biggest cause of chest cancer. However, according to a research, only 2% of the patients of chest cancers are smokers. Which of the following conclusion can be most appropriately drawn from the given information? (Indicate all that apply)
I. Smoking do not cause chest cancer.
II. Most cancer patients have abandoned smoking after they realized that they have chest cancer.
III. Smoking might be the cause of chest cancer, but not the biggest.
05. If City X is the capital of Country Y, and Market A is the biggest financial hub of City X, then which of the following is a valid conclusion? (Indicate all that apply)
I. Financial activity in Market A is more than rest of the City X.
II. Market A is the biggest financial hub of Country Y.
III. Financial activity in Country Y is not less than that of City X.
01. II only
02. III only (III is true, because it means in Earnest Prep, nobody is there who is not attending seminar)
03. None of the above. (As, it follows that: C … A … C … B, which means C can be either West or East of A)
04. III only
I is not true, because the argument is not about carelessness of cancer patients. The argument is trying to reveal relationship between smoking and chest cancer.
II is also cannot be drawn as conclusion, because this statement is actually undermine the conclusion that would most appropriately be drawn. If cancer patients have abandon smocking, then the author might believe that smoking IS the biggest cause. But actually, the author want to say the opposite of this. In short, only 2% of patients are smokers reveals that smoking is not the biggest cause of chest cancer. This option would be the write answer if the argument ask which of the following can most jeopardize the argument, if conclusion is stated in argument or question stem.
III accurately stating the conclusion because if only 2% of the cancer patients exhibit smoking, so smoking might be the minor cause, but not the major. Thus III is best choice.
Hint: A valid conclusion is MUST be true, rather than could be true. And “more than the REST of city” and “more than any other market of the city” are completely different statements.
For instance: Market A has 100 activities, while Market B, C, D and E etc in city X have 99, 98, 97 and 96 activities. So Market A is biggest financial hub, but the activity in market is not necessarily greater than the rest of the city X.